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Glossary

Terms

  • Ableism – discrimination or prejudice against individuals with disabilities
  • Advocate – a person who publicly supports or recommends a particular cause or policy
  • Ageism prejudice or discrimination against a particular age-group and especially the elderly
  • Alienate – cause (someone) to feel isolated or estranged
  • Amnesty – the act of an authority (such as a government) by which pardon is granted to a large group of individuals.
  • Antebellum – existing before a war; especially existing before the American Civil War.
  • Arbitrary – based on random choice or personal whim, rather than any reason or system
  • Bureaucraticrelating to the business of running an organization, or government. An official who is rigidly devoted to the details of administrative procedure.
  • Bewilderment – a feeling of being perplexed and confused
  • Bias – an inclination of temperament or outlook; especially : a personal and sometimes unreasoned judgment : prejudice
  • Bigotry: intolerance toward those who hold different opinions from oneself
  • Bondsmen – slaves

  • Brutality – savage physical violence; great cruelty
  • Capitulatecease to resist an opponent or an unwelcome demand; to surrender under specified conditions
  • Caste – a division of society based on differences of wealth, inherited rank or privilege, profession, occupation, or race
  • Category – A class or division of hurricanes, people, or things regarded as having particular shared characteristics – such as wind speed.
  • Chattle Slavery – The condition in which one person is owned as property by another and is under the owner’s control, especially in involuntary servitude.
  • Chokeholds – a tight grip around a person’s neck, used to restrain him or her by restricting breathing “I CANT BREATHE”
  • Cisgender – people whose gender identity matches the sex that they were assigned at birth
  • Civil liberties– freedom from arbitrary governmental interference, the state of being subject only to laws established for the good of the community, especially with regard to freedom of action and speech
  • Climate Changea change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.
  • Coerce – persuade (an unwilling person) to do something by using force or threat
  • Color Blindness – The notion that race does not matter.
  • Commodification – the action or process of treating something )such as an intrinsic value or a work of art, water) as a mere commodity
  • Complicitinvolved with others in an illegal activity or wrongdoing, neutral in times of needed action
  • Condensationthe conversion of a substance (such as water) from the vapor state to a denser liquid or solid state usually initiated by a reduction in temperature of the vapor
  • Consciousness – the state of being awake and aware of one’s surroundings
  • Consensus – general agreement
  • Contingent – subject to chance
  • Conviction – a formal declaration that someone is guilty of a criminal offense, made by the verdict of a jury or the decision of a judge in a court of law
  • Corporatism – the organization of a society into industrial and professional corporations serving as organs of political representation and exercising control over persons and activities within their jurisdiction
  • Counterintuitive – contrary to what one would intuitively expect
  • Coup – A sudden appropriation of leadership or power; a takeover: a “boardroom coup”.
  • Deindustrialization – A reduction in the size or share of the manufacturing sector in an economy, decline in industrial activity
  • Demonize – portray as wicked and threatening
  • Discretion – the quality of behaving or speaking in such a way as to avoid causing offense or revealing private information.
  • Disenfranchisedeprive (someone) of the right to vote
  • Discrimination the unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, especially on the grounds of race, age, or sex.
  • Disparity – a great difference.
  • Dismantle –  to break apart a machine or structure to pieces
  • Disproportionatetoo large or too small in comparison with something else
  • Distort – pull or twist out of shape
  • Ecosystema biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment
  • Evaporateturn from liquid into vapor
  • Emancipation – an act of setting someone free from control or slavery. 

  • Enslavement – the action of making someone a slave; subjugation.

  • Equilibriuma state in which opposing forces or influences are balanced
  • Exacerbating – make (a problem, bad situation, or negative feeling) worse.
  • Executive Branch – Carries out and enforces laws. It includes the President, Vice President, the Cabinet, executive departments, independent agencies, and other boards, commissions, and committees.
  • Explicitstated clearly and in detail, leaving no room for confusion or doubt
  • Exploitationthe action or fact of treating someone unfairly in order to benefit from their work
  • Eye – What goes up must come down, so with the violent rising air converging toward the storm center at the eye, sinking air develops within. This air dries out, creating the clear, calm eye. Winds are very light here since the focus of convergence and hence strong winds are in the eyewall.
  • EyewallThe mass of clouds that whirls around the eye of a hurricane, where the destructive force of the storm is most intense.
  • Fear Mongering – a person who delights in spreading rumours of disaster, an alarmist
  • Federalism – the division of power between the states and the federal government.

  • Feeder Bands – These are squally bands of showers characterized by strong gusty winds and heavy rains. These bands become more pronounced as the storm intensifies, and are fed by the warm ocean.
  • Felon a person who has been convicted of a felony
  • Felony – A serious crime, characterized under federal law and many state statutes as any offense punishable by death or imprisonment in excess of one year. Crimes classified as felonies include, among others, Treason, Arson, Murder, Rape, Robbery, Burglary, Manslaughter, and Kidnapping. (AS IN: Offenses dangerously more serious than smoking a joint or suffering from addiction from opoids/heroin/crack )
  • Feminism – The theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes
  • Fascism – An authoritarian and nationalist political ideology that embraces strong leadership, singular collective identity and the will to commit violence or wage war to further the interests of the state.
  • Gerrymandering – a district or pattern of districts varying greatly in size or population
  • Global Warming – an increase in the earth’s atmospheric and oceanic temperatures widely predicted to occur due to an increase in the greenhouse effect resulting especially from pollution.
  • Grassroots – the common or ordinary people, especially as contrasted with the leadership or elite of a political party, social organization, etc.
  • Hierarchy – the classification of a group of people according to ability or to economic, social, or professional standing.
  • Hurricane – A storm with a violent wind, in particular a tropical cyclone in the Caribbean; Intense low pressure areas that form over warm ocean waters in the summer and early fall
  • Illusion – a thing that is or is likely to be wrongly perceived or interpreted by the senses
  • Imagery – A set of mental pictures or images.
  • Implicit Bias – term of art referring to relatively unconscious and relatively automatic features of prejudiced judgment and social behavior.
  • Indentured Servant – placed under contract to work for another over a period of time, usually seven years, especially during the 17th to 19th centuries.
  • Insurrection – an act or instance of revolting against civil authority or an established government.
  • Islamaphobia – hatred or fear of Muslims or of their politics or culture
  • Jim Crow – ethnic discrimination especially against blacks by legal enforcement or traditional sanctions
  • Judicial Branch – Interprets the meaning of laws, applies laws to individual cases, and decides if laws violate the Constitution. It’s comprised of the Supreme Court and other federal courts.
  • Juxtapose – place or deal with close together for contrasting effect
  • Lenient – of punishment or a person in authority permissive, merciful, or tolerant.
  • Legislative Branch – Enacts legislation, confirms or rejects Presidential appointments, and has the authority to declare war.
  • Litigation – the process of taking legal action
  • Mandatory Sentencing – requires that offenders serve a predefined term for certain crimes, commonly serious and violent offenses
  • Manipulation – to control or play upon by artful, unfair, or insidious means especially to one’s own advantage
  • Mass Incarceration –refers not only to the criminal justice system, but a larger web of laws, rules, policies, and customs that control those labeled criminals both in and out of prison.

  • Migrationmovement from one part of something to another
  • Miscegenationthe interbreeding of people considered to be of different racial types
  • Misandryhatred, dislike, or mistrust of men, or prejudice against men.
  • Misdemeanor – Law. a criminal offense defined as less serious than a felony.
  • Misogyny – hatred, dislike, or mistrust of women, or prejudice against women.
  • Mobilizeto put into movement or circulation
  • Neo-liberal – policy model of social studies and economics that transfers control of economic factors to the private sector from the public sector.
  • Noosea loop with a slipknot that binds closer the more it is drawn
  • Oppression – unjust or cruel exercise of authority or power.
  • Ostracismexclusion from a society or group
  • Outflow – The high level clouds moving clockwise out away from the hurricane at heights of over 35,000 feet. These clouds are indicative of air spreading out over the top of the storm, which is essential to its development.
  • Pander – a person who caters to or profits from the weaknesses or vices of others
  • Paradigm – a typical example or pattern of something; a model
  • Pariah – a member of a low caste, an outcast
  • Parole – The release of a prisoner temporarily (for a special purpose) or permanently before the completion of a sentence, on the promise of good behavior
  • Patriarchy a system of society or government in which the father or eldest male is head of the family and descent is traced through the male line.
  • Pervasivespread throughout
  • Plantation – an estate on which crops such as coffee, sugar, and tobacco are cultivated by resident labor.
  • Plea bargain – an arrangement between a prosecutor and a defendant whereby the defendant pleads guilty to a lesser charge in the expectation of leniency
  • Pragmatic – dealing with things sensibly and realistically in a way that is based on practical rather than theoretical considerations
  • Pretext – An act in which an illegal stop is perpetuated under the guise of false violations
  • Probable cause – a reasonable amount of suspicion, supported by evidence
  • Probation the release of an offender from detention, subject to a period of good behavior under supervision
  • Proxy – the agency, function, or power of a person authorized to act as the deputy or substitute for another.
  • Rampant – violent in action or spirit; raging; furious: growing luxuriantly, as weeds, in full sway; prevailing or unchecked
  • Reconstruction Era – generally refers to the period in United States history immediately following the Civil War in which the federal government set the conditions that would allow the rebellious Southern states back into the Union
  • Rehabilitation – the action of restoring someone to health or normal life through training and therapy after imprisonment, addiction, or illness, behavior
  • Repressionthe action of subduing someone or something by force
  • Resentmenta feeling of indignant displeasure or persistent ill will at something regarded as a wrong, insult, or injury
  • Rhetoric A style of speaking or writing, especially the language of a particular subject verbal communication :discourse
  • Romanticize – to make romantic; invest with a romantic character
  • Saturated – having or holding as much as can be absorbed of something, imbued thoroughly.
  • Sanitizeto make more acceptable by removing unpleasant or undesired features, attempts to sanitize historical accounts
  • Segregation – the action or state of setting someone or something apart from other people or things or being set apart.
  • Sensationalize – To present in a manner intended to arouse curiosity or broad interest, especially through the inclusion of exaggerated or lurid details
  • Socialism – a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
  • Socioeconomic – relating to or concerned with the interaction of social and economic factors.
  • “Socioeconomic Status” – is the economic and sociological combined total measure of a person’s work experience and of an individual’s or family’s economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.
  • Solidarity – union or fellowship arising from common responsibilities and interests, as between members of a group or between classes, peoples, to promote solidarity among union members, community of feelings, purposes, etc.
  • Stereotype – an exaggerated belief, image or distorted truth about a group or person—a generalization that allows for little or no individual differences or social variation.
  • Stop and Frisk-  A brief, non-intrusive, police stop of a suspect without probable cause which led to racial profiling
  • Storm Surge – Low pressure in the hurricane can act as a plunger, slightly pulling up the water level. However, the components that contribute to the greatest storm surge affect are the winds blowing to the left side of the storm and the topography of the land as the storm makes land fall. The strongest surge comes ashore just to the right of the eye, where the fierce hurricane winds are blowing toward land. Winds on the left side of the storm might actually cause the water level to run slightly lower than normal. Higher water level allows waves to strike farther inland, causing massive property damage. 
  • Subjugation – To bring under control, especially by military force; conquer.
  • Surveillance – close observation, constant watch
  • Transphobia – a range of antagonistic attitudes and feelings against transgender or transsexual people, or against transsexuality.
  • Vigilant – keeping careful watch for possible danger or difficulties
  • Warrant a document issued by a legal or government official authorizing the police or some other body to make an arrest, search premises, or carry out some other action relating to the administration of justice
  • Water Vapor – a dispersion, in air, of molecules of water, especially as produced by evaporation at ambient temperatures rather than by boiling.
  • Wiretappingthe practice of connecting a listening device to a telephone line to secretly monitor a conversation
  • WittinglyAware or conscious of something. Done intentionally or with premeditation; deliberate.
  • XenophobicFear, hatred, or mistrust of that which is foreign, especially strangers or people from different countries or cultures.

Abbreviations & Acronyms

  • ACE – Alabamians for a Clean Environment
  • ACLU – American Civil Liberties Union
  • ACORN – Association of COmmunity Organizations for Reform NC
  • DDE – dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene
  • DDT – dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
  • DOE – Department of Energy
  • EDC – ethylene dichloride
  • E] – environmental justice
  • EIM – environmental justice movement
  • EPA – Environmental Protection Agency
  • FHA – Federal Housing Administration
  • FmHA – Farmers Home Administration
  • FTI – Federal Technologies, Incorporated
  • GAO – General Accounting Office / Government Accountability Office (after 2004)
  • GM – General Motors Company
  • HOLC – Home Owners’ Loan Corporation
  • HRS – Hazard Ranking System
  • HUD – Housing and Urban Development
  • IRA – Indian Reorganization Act
  • LDEQ – Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality
  • MAUP – Modifiable areal unit problem
  • mg/kg – milligrams per kilogram
  • MPHA – Myers Park Housing Association
  • MRS – monitored retrieval storage
  • NAACP – National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
  • NAREB – National Association of Real Estate Boards
  • ng/ ml – nanograms per milliliter
  • NIH – National Institutes of Health
  • NORCO – New Orleans Refining Company
  • NFL – National Priorities List
  • PCBs – polychlorinated biphenyls
  • PEON – Protect the Environment of Noxubee
  • PPm – parts per million
  • PWA – Public Works Administration
  • RCRA – Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
  • RECA – Radiation Exposure Compensation Act
  • RIA – Resources Industries of Alabama, Incorporated
  • R.I.S.E. – Residents Involved in Saving the Environment
  • RSEI – Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators
  • SCOPE – Sumter Countians Organized for the Protection of the Environment
  • TCE – trichloroethylene
  • TDH – Texas Department of Health
  • TRI – Toxics Release Inventory
  • TSCA – Toxic Substances Control Act
  • TSDF – toxic storage disposal facility
  • TVA – Tennessee Valley Authority
  • UCC – United Church of Christ
  • USPCI – United States Pollution Control Incorporated
  • VA – Veterans Administration
  • WMX – Waste Management